Understanding State and Revolution by Lenin – Chapter II

In the summary of Chapter I of State and Revolution, we read about how and why states are formed and how the state in capitalist society is the organ of oppression of the working class by the ruling class through military and paramilitary forces, and through taxation of the working class. We also read about how the antagonism between the working class and the ruling class is irreconcilable and hence, the working class must overthrow the state in an armed revolution and install a new form of government, the dictatorship of the proletariat, in order to win its class struggle and remove class distinctions during the transition period of capitalism to communism, which is when the state will finally wither away because it will no longer be required to enable the oppression of any class.

Let us proceed to the next chapter, which focuses on the European revolutions of 1848 to 1851, a series of liberal revolutions that began in France and aimed to replace the monarchical states with independent nations. Continue reading

Socialist States are more Democratic than Capitalist States

In Part 1 of this article, Our Right to Vote is not a Sufficient Measure of Democracy, we read about how capitalist countries are authoritarian and how voting in national level elections in capitalist societies is essentially ineffective. In the second part of the article, we shall explore democracy in Actually Existing Socialist states (AES states) and understand concepts of freedom and authority from a dialectical point of view as opposed to an analytical point of view. Continue reading